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Gilutongan Island Solar Off-Grid Microgrid

Gilutongan Island is an island village in the municipality of Cordova, province of Cebu in the Central Visayas, Philippines. The island has a land are of 0.1126 km² and is about 5.5 km by sea from Mactan Island (Sotto et al., 2001). As of the year 2017, the community in Gilutongan Island has a population of 1875 living in 342 households (Lozano et al., 2019).

The Mactan Island is connected to the Philippine national grid; however, due to the economic unviability of connecting to the centralized grid through submarine cables, the Gilutongan Island is still an off-grid island. To provide an electricity access to the community, a solar off-grid microgrid was installed to the island which was commissioned in March 2020.



Specifications for the main components of the solar microgrid

Component Capacity
Implementation Details
Solar PV panel 7.92 kWp Divided into 2x3.96 kWp arrays for installation in two rooftops, each array having 12 units of 330 Wp solar panels
Battery energy storage
28.8 kWh Consisted of 12 units of 12 V, 200 Ah get-type lead acid batteries, connected in 3 parallel strings with each strings having 4 batteries in series
Battery energy storage
38.4 kWh An additional of 4 units of 12 V, 200 Ah get-type lead acid batteries were added. As of December 2020 the energy storage system has a total of 16 units (total capacity of 38.4 kWh) connected in 4 parallel strings with each strings having 4 batteries in series
Charge/inverter 10 kVA Consisted of 2 units of 5 kVA charger/inverters connected in parallel with one charger/inverter
Project Details
Number of connected households 11 households are connected to the microgrid (locations shown on the map)
Project lifetime The installation has an expected lifetime of 25 years

Microgrid location

Map of 11 Households Connected to the Microgrid

Gilutongan Island structures

Description of the electricity access on Gilutongan Island based on the multi-tier framework before and after the solar microgrid

Attribute MTF Tier
MTF Tier
Microgrid Electricity Supply Characteristics
Peak Capacity 3 4 The microgrid can power loads beyond 800W
The system is capable of supplying loads above 2kW (tier 5), but such loads are not used on the island
Availability 2 5 Electricity is available 24h daily
Reliability 4 5 One-year operations' data (from April 2020 to March 2021) showed an average disruption frequency of only 0.33 times per week with an average disruption duration of 1.93h/week
Quality 0 5 One-year operation's data showed an average voltage of 229.1 V with an average total harmonic distortion (THD) of 1.71%
Affordability 0 0 Electricity costs 0.40 USD/kWh
The cost of a standard consumption package of 1kWh/day is 6% of the average household income on Gilutongan Island
Legality 0 5 Households pay the microgrid sustainability fee to its own organitation's treasurer
The household organization keeps formal financial records
Health and safety 0 5 The microgrid is compliant with technical standards

Multi-tier matrix for measuring access to household electricity supply

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Multi-tier Matrix for Measuring Access to Household Electricity Supply

  Attributes Tier 0 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 5
Peak Capacity
Power capacity rating
(in W or daily Wh)
Min 3W
Min 50W
Min 200W
Min 800W
Min 2kW
Min 12Wh
Min 200Wh
Min 1.0kWh
Min 3.4kWh
Min 8.2kWh
Lighting or 1,000
Electrical lighting,
air circulation,
Availabilty (Duration)
Hours per day
Min 4hrs
Min 4hrs
Min 8hrs
Min 16hrs
Min 23hrs
Hours per evening
Min 1hr
Min 2hrs
Min 3hrs
Min 4hrs
Min 4hrs
Max 14 disruptions per week
Max 3 disruptions per week
Voltage problems cannot cause serious damage to the appliances
Cost of a standard consumption package of <5% of household income
Bill is paid to the utility, prepaid card seller, or authorized representative
Health & Safety
Absence of past accidents and perception of high risk in the future

Electricity consumption and daily household electricity cost

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Household Avg. Daily Consumption,
Avg. Daily Payment for Consumption,
Previous Daily Payment for the Diesel Generator, USD
HH1 0.56 0.22 0.5
HH2 6.61 2.65 0.4
HH3 0.84 0.81 0.3
HH4 0.81 0.32 0.8
HH5 1.63 0.65 0.2
HH6 1.57 0.63 0.3
HH7 0.51 0.20 0.14
HH8 1.41 0.56 0.3
HH9 0.55 0.22 0.14
HH10 0.56 0.22 0.42
HH11 0.39 0.16 0.14